After the success of the Olympic revival in 1896, Greek leaders believed Athens should become the permanent host city of the Games. They held it was important to keep the Olympics near its historical birthplace and spiritual heart. However, the International Olympic Committee decided to rotate the host city each Olympiad. Since Paris was already hosting the popular World Fair in 1900, it seemed like the perfect choice.
But the move backfired and the Games were a disaster of planning and execution. Although there were four times more competitors and double the number of sports than in Athens four years earlier, the 1900 Games struggled. IOC President Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympics, later remarked, “It’s a miracle the Olympic movement survived these Games.”
The best outcome of the Paris Games was that women first competed in Olympic events, with 22 women taking part. British tennis player Charlotte Cooper is credited as the first woman to win an Olympic title. France, with 26 gold medals, topped the medal table, the only time in Olympic history it has done so.
Australia at these Games
Three male competitors represented Australia at the Paris 1900 Games - runner Stan Rowley, swimmer Fred Lane and shooter Donald Mackintosh – and all three won medals.
Lane won the 200m freestyle and 200m obstacle race to become Australia’s first Olympic swimming champion. Mackintosh won the game shooting event and placed third in the live pigeons event. In both events Mackintosh shot at live birds, killing 22 pigeons from 22 shots for his victory and 18 pigeons for his third place. Meanwhile, on the grassy and far less bloody track, Rowley was third in the 60m, 100m and 200m, and was part of the winning British team in the cross-country event (see below).
All three competitors have a unique aspect to their medals. Lane stands as the first in a long line of storied swimmers for Australia. The 200m obstacle race, which involved clambering over rowing boats and swimming under punts, never again appeared at a Games.
Rowley remains the only track star to have won a medal for two different countries at the one Games. The British team for the 5000m cross-country team race were short a runner, so Rowley accepted an invitation to join them. They won, adding handsomely to Rowley’s medal haul.
Mackintosh competed in shooting without realising he was participating in Olympic events. Mackintosh was a professional shooter touring Europe for competitions, and his professional status may help to explain why he was overlooked in all Olympic records until recently.
It wasn’t until 1992 that Mackintosh’s shooting successes and Rowley’s cross-country win were officially recognised by the IOC.